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12th International Congress on Microbial Interaction and Applications of Beneficial Microbes, will be organized around the theme “”

Microbial Interactions 2017 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Microbial Interactions 2017

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Biological interactions are the effects that the organisms in a community have on one another. There are completely different kinds of microbial interactions which in-corporates interaction with different microbes, Plant-Germ interactions promoting plant growth, interaction with animals, interaction with humans, and interaction with water, etc.
Microbial interactions are ubiquitous, diverse, critically important in the function of any biological community, and are crucial in global biogeochemistry. The most common cooperative interactions seen in microbial systems are mutually beneficial. The interactions between the two populations are classified according to whether both populations and one of them benefit from the associationship, or one or both populations are negatively affected. There are many sorts of symbiotic relationship such as mutualism, parasitism, amensalism, commensalism and competition, predation, protocooperation between the organisms. Mutualism and parasitism have been most extensively studied in microbial relationships.
 

 

  • Track 1-1Principles of microbial interaction
  • Track 1-2Microbial Symbiosis
  • Track 1-3Mutualism
  • Track 1-4Parasitism
  • Track 1-5Commensalism
  • Track 1-6Amensalism
  • Track 1-7Interactions between diverse microbial populations.
  • Track 1-8Plant microbe interactions promoting plant growth
  • Track 1-9Beneficial Host-Microbial Interactions
  • Track 1-10Pathogenic Host-Microbial Interactions
Microorganisms include those organisms which are too tiny to be observed by naked eyes. They may be either unicellular or multicellular. They can be beneficial, harmless or disease causing pathogen. The elemental cycles taking place in the environment are highlighting examples of the beneficial role of microorganism. Microorganisms are a crucial part of the ecosystem and take part in activities like production of minerals like nitrogen, gases like oxygen, carbon dioxide, cleaning by action on dead matters etc. In various industries, microbes are used intentionally due to their role in human welfare and they are considered as beneficial microbes. 
 
Beneficial microorganisms cause fermentation while harmful or pathogenic microorganisms cause putrefaction. Fermentation is a process by which useful substances such as alcohol, amino acids, organic acids and antioxidants are produced. These substances are useful to man, plants, and animals. Some beneficial microorganisms that are found in growing plants are healthy for human consumption as well as in producing other useful products to man.  
 

 

  • Track 2-1Plant-associated microbiomes
  • Track 2-2Role of medical devices for detection
  • Track 2-3Fermentation Technology
  • Track 2-4Microbes for human and animal consumption
  • Track 2-5Commercial enzyme production
  • Track 2-6Role of photosynthetic bacteria in plant growth development
  • Track 2-7Production of Immunosuppressive agents
  • Track 2-8Contribution to agriculture pollution
  • Track 2-9Role of microflora
An organism's interactions with its environment are fundamental to the survival of that organism and the functioning of the ecosystem as a whole. Microbial interaction is the inter- and intra-relationships between various microorganisms that include both positive and negative interactions. The host-microbe interaction is defined as how microbes sustain themselves within host organisms on a molecular, infection, cellular, organismal or population level. Interactions between symbiotic or pathogenic microbes and the hosts they colonize are central to both health and disease.
 

 

  • Track 3-1Microbial Adaption to Host Defences
  • Track 3-2Pathogenic Host-Microbial Interactions
  • Track 3-3Metal Economy in host-microbe interactions
  • Track 3-4Pathogenic Adaptions to Host Derived Antibacterial Copper
  • Track 3-5Homeostasis at the Host pathogen Interface
A biofilm is an assemblage of microbial cells that is irreversibly associated (not removed by gentle rinsing) with a surface and enclosed in a matrix of primarily polysaccharide material. These adherent cells are frequently embedded within a self-produced matrix of ESP (extracellular polymeric substance). Biofilms may form on a wide variety of surfaces, including living tissues, soil particles, indwelling medical devices, industrial or potable water system piping, or natural aquatic systems and provides an optimal environment for the exchange of genetic material between cells. Biofilms can be formed by a single bacterial species, but biofilms more often consist of many species of bacteria, as well as fungi, algae, protozoa, debris, and corrosion products. 
The study of biofilms has skyrocketed in recent years due to increased awareness of the pervasiveness and impact of biofilms on natural and industrial systems, as well as human health. The complexity of biofilm activity and behavior requires research contributions from many disciplines such as biochemistry, engineering, mathematics and microbiology.
 
  • Track 4-1Quorum Sensing
  • Track 4-2Gene regulation in biofilms
  • Track 4-3Bacterial Biofilms
  • Track 4-4Fungal Biofilms
  • Track 4-5Biofilm Ecology
  • Track 4-6Biofilms in Medicine
  • Track 4-7Biofilms and infectious diseases
  • Track 4-8Biofilms in food industry
  • Track 4-9Biofilm production and antibiotic resistance
Microbial ecology (or environmental microbiology) is the ecology of microorganisms: their relationship with one another and with their environment. It concerns the three major domains of life—Eukaryota, Archaea, and Bacteria—as well as viruses.  . 
Microorganisms are the backbone of all ecosystems, but even more so in the zones where photosynthesis is unable to take place because of the absence of light. Microbial life plays a primary role in regulating biogeochemical systems in virtually all of our planet's environments, including some of the most extreme, from frozen environments and acidic lakes, to hydrothermal vents at the bottom of deepest oceans and human small intestine. 
Microbial Ecology is a dedicated international forum for the presentation of high-quality scientific investigations of how microorganisms interact with their environment, with each other and with their hosts. 
Coverage includes the ecology of microorganisms in natural and engineered environments; genomic, metagenomic and molecular advances in understanding of microbial interactions; microbial diversity and phylogeny; microbial drivers of biogeochemical processes; inter- and intraspecific microbial communication; ecological studies of human, animal, plant and insect microbiology and disease; microbial processes and interactions in extreme or unusual environments; microbial population, community ecology, technological developments and more.
 

 

  • Track 5-1Types of microbial ecology
  • Track 5-2Importance of microbial ecology
  • Track 5-3Organization of microbial community
  • Track 5-4Fundamentals and applications
  • Track 5-5Microbial resource management
  • Track 5-6Global Ecology
  • Track 5-7Microbe Hunting
  • Track 5-8Impact of Anthropogenic Pressures
Microbial diversity is an unseen national resource. Microbial diversity establishes variability among all kinds of microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, viruses) within the plants. Microorganisms are vital sources of data regarding the methods and limits of life, and that they play a crucial role in the sustainability of life on our planet, microbial diversity within the human intestine represents an anaerobic bioreactor programmed with a huge population of microorganism, dominated by relatively few divisions that are extremely numerous at the strain/subspecies level.
 
The microbial world encompasses most of the phylogenetic diversity on Earth, as all Bacteria, all Archaea and most lineages of the Eukarya are microorganisms.
Sequencing of microbial DNA isolated from natural environments (environmental genomics, metagenomics) has revealed the existence of a tremendous variety of yet uncultured microorganisms, showing that the true microbial diversity in nature is much higher than currently recognized on the basis of organisms studied in culture
 

 

  • Track 6-1Microbes in Mines
  • Track 6-2Microbial Leaching of Ores
  • Track 6-3Traditional Techniques for Studying Microbes
  • Track 6-4Microbial Evolution and Taxonomy
  • Track 6-5Diverse Habitats
  • Track 6-6Biodiversity
  • Track 6-7Taxonomic Diversity
Plant-microbe interactions describe a broad range of scientific study concerning the molecular biology and molecular genetics of pathological, symbiotic and associative interactions of microbes with plants. Plant—microbe encounters can be friendly or hostile. In nature, plants are attacked by a multitude of pathogens and pests that can cause major crop losses in agriculture. To protect themselves, plants can activate a sophisticated immune system. Moreover, they recruit beneficial microbes (mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobia) to their root system that help them to grow better and boost immune responses and also provide plants with mineral nutrients and fixed nitrogen, respectively, in exchange for carbon. The Plant-Microbe Interactions group aims to contribute to knowledge of the underlying mechanisms involved in the interactions of plants with pathogens and symbionts and to unravel at the molecular level how the plant immune system orchestrates interactions with beneficial microbes, pathogens and insects
 
Recently, researchers are using the full range of modern scientific techniques, including biochemistry, bioinformatics, chemistry, genetics, genomics, molecular and cellular biology, proteomics, and structural biology.
 
  • Track 7-1Plant-associated microbiomes
  • Track 7-2Molecular and biochemical roles in plant-microbe interactions
  • Track 7-3Rhizoremediation
  • Track 7-4Interaction between Plants and Bacteria
  • Track 7-5Plant-Fungal interaction
  • Track 7-6Interaction between Plant and Viral pathogens
  • Track 7-7Phytoremediation
This information is crucial for the development of functional, comparative, and other post genomic approaches to unravel the in situ functionality of these bacteria in the human intestinal tract and how they affect consumer health at the molecular level. Mutation is the ultimate source of genetic variation which defines genetic interaction, can reveal functional relationships between genes and pathways. These advances can ultimately be exploited to develop novel and designer probiotics with a predestined impact on consumer gut health.
 
A quantitative genetic interaction definition has two components: a quantitative phenotypic measure and a neutrality function that predicts the phenotype of an organism carrying two non-interacting mutations. Understanding the genetic and molecular basis of host specificity in pathogenic microbe is important for understanding pathogenic mechanisms, developing better animal models and designing new strategies and therapeutics for the control of microbial diseases.
  • Track 8-1Nitrogen Fixation
  • Track 8-2Plant growth promoting Rhizobacteria
  • Track 8-3Microbes acting as Biocontrol Agents
  • Track 8-4Microbial biotechnology and its applications in agriculture
  • Track 8-5Controlling of pests and diseases by soil microbes
  • Track 8-6Recycling of Nutrients
  • Track 8-7Biogeochemical cycles in soil
  • Track 8-8Denitrification
Microorganisms are widely used in various beneficial applications, including food, pest control, bioremediation, biodegradation, biofuel processes, and plant symbiosis and growth stimulation. Microbes as pests that are destructive to their crops or animals (as well as themselves), but many microbes are beneficial. In this era a sustainable agriculture development is needed to develop farming systems that are productive, profitable, energy conserving, environmentally-sound, conserving of natural resources, and that ensure food safety and quality and mitigate issues like food crisis.
Soil microbes (bacteria and fungi) are essential for decomposing organic matter and recycling old plant material. The rhizosphere is the soil-plant root interphase and in practice consists of the soil adhering to the root besides the loose soil surrounding it. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria are potential agents for the biological control of plant pathogens and fulfil the requirement for strong colonization. The concepts and practices of natural farming make use of a consortium of beneficial microorganisms to improve soil health.
 
  • Track 9-1Biocontrol Agent
  • Track 9-2Biofertilizer
  • Track 9-3Postharvest Techniques
  • Track 9-4Microbial control of plant diseases
  • Track 9-5Molecular basis of plant growth promotion
  • Track 9-6Plant growth promotion with microorganisms
  • Track 9-7Probiotics for plants
  • Track 9-8Pest control agents and plant growth promoters
Various aquatic ecosystems such as World Oceans, lakes, rivers, springs, ponds, and ground water provide most of the living space on Earth. A multitude of environmental niches are present in the various – some hot (even extreme hot with temperatures over 100°C), some cold, at high pressures in the deep ocean. Despite the undisputed and vital roles of microorganisms in the global ecosystems –driving biogeochemical cycles and basic part of food-webs that affect climate and the cycling of elements and nutrients to other organisms – the most of aquatic environments remain under-explored both and therefore represent to huge pool of unexplored biodiversity. 
 
We know that microbes are the Earth’s processing factories of biological, geological, and chemical (biogeochemical) interactions. Most marine microbes exist in highly organized and interactive communities.
The oceans teem with microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, and protists, many of these microbes fundamentally influence the ocean's ability to sustain life on Earth. Some microbes living and transported in ocean water, however, threaten human health.
 
  • Track 10-1Microbial Loop to aquatic food webs
  • Track 10-2Microbial Interactions in Marine Systems
  • Track 10-3Diversity of Bacterial Heterotrophs
  • Track 10-4Diversity of Bacterial Autotrophs
  • Track 10-5Diversity of Viruses in water ecosystem
  • Track 10-6Role of Plankton in marine system
  • Track 10-7Microbial World and Geochemical Cycles

Biotechnology is the branch of biological science, which deals with the manipulation through genetic engineering of living organisms or their components to produce useful products for various applications in biological sciences. Biotechnology is the rapidly growing segment in biological sciences. The review deals with microbes in biotechnology and their diversified applications in Microbiology, Ecology,  Microbial Biotechnology, Agriculture as bio-fertilizers, bio-pesticides, bio-herbicides, bio-insecticides, fungal based bio-insecticides and viral based bio-insecticides. Various microbial habitats reflect an enormous diversity of biochemical and metabolic traits that have arisen by genetic variation and natural selection in microbial populations. 

Microbial biotechnology, enabled by genome studies, will lead to breakthroughs such as improved vaccines and better disease-diagnostic tools, improved microbial agents for biological control of plant and animal pests, modifications of plant and animal pathogens for reduced virulence, development of new industrial catalysts and fermentation organisms, and development of new microbial agents for bioremediation of soil and water contaminated by agricultural runoff.

  • Track 11-1Bacteriophages in Green Biotechnology
  • Track 11-2Microbes in Medical Biotechnology
  • Track 11-3Design of live vaccines
  • Track 11-4Applications in sustainable agriculture
  • Track 11-5Genetic Engineering
  • Track 11-6Recombinant DNA Technology
  • Track 11-7Insulin production
  • Track 11-8Role of bacteria in Immune system
  • Track 11-9Viral Vectors and Gene Therapy
  • Track 11-10Screening for microbial products
Probiotics are microorganisms that are believed to produce health advantages once consumed. A major growth of the potential marketplace for probiotics has led to higher needs for scientific substantiation of supposed benefits conferred by the microorganisms. Bacterial cell surface macromolecules are key factors in this beneficial microorganism–host crosstalk, as they can interact with host pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) of the gastrointestinal mucosa.
 
The human GI tract is colonised by a colossal and complex association of mainly bacterial cells. This microbiota consists of a minimum of 1013 microbes, dominated by anaerobic bacteria, comprising over 1,000 species, of which the majority cannot be cultured under laboratory conditions. Research on host–probiotic interactions can benefit from well-documented host–microorganism studies that span the spectrum from pathogenicity to mutualism.
 
  • Track 12-1Probiotics in Health and Diseases
  • Track 12-2Use of probiotic bacteria as antigen delivery vehicle
  • Track 12-3Monitoring microbial Responses
  • Track 12-4Commensal Microbes
  • Track 12-5Role of Probiotics in modulation of host immune response
  • Track 12-6Molecular analysis
  • Track 12-7Role of probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics for gut heath benefits

Pathogenicity is the ability to produce disease in a host organism. Microbes express their pathogenicity by means of their virulence, a term which refers to the degree of pathogenicity of the microbe. Hence, the determinants of virulence of a pathogen are any of its genetic or biochemical or structural features that enable it to produce disease in a host.

The relationship between a host and a pathogen is dynamic, since each modifies the activities and functions of the other. The outcome of such a relationship depends on the virulence of the pathogen and the relative degree of resistance or susceptibility of the host, due mainly to the effectiveness of the host defence mechanisms. Natural or human-triggered changes in the environment might upset the natural balance between living organisms. These new environmental conditions may encourage pathogens, allowing them to multiply rapidly and increase the risk of exposing humans who share that environment. Infection can be transmitted by direct or indirect contact.

  • Track 13-1Pathogen virulence
  • Track 13-2Morphology
  • Track 13-3Metal acquisition
  • Track 13-4Microevolution
  • Track 13-5Molecular biology of human pathogenic fungi
  • Track 13-6Adherence and Colonization Factors
  • Track 13-7Host-mediated Pathogenesis
  • Track 13-8Molecular Basis for Virulence
  • Track 13-9Bacterial Infectivity
  • Track 13-10Host Susceptibility
  • Track 13-11Toxigenesis
  • Track 13-12Invasion mechanisms

Microbial diseases are sicknesses or ailments or infections that are caused in animals and humans making damages to the individual’s vital functions or systems by the introduction of one of four different types of microbes. Microbes generally enter the body through the respiratory tract (mouth and nose), gastrointestinal tract (mouth oral cavity), urogenital tract, breaks in the skin surface.The microbial diseases are caused by virus, bacteria, fungi and protozoa.

 
Epidemiology leads to the identification of transmission, pathogenesis, and ultimately preventive factors in human diseases. Study of clinical aspects and ecological aspects of a given diseases are important for public health measures to control the diseases to be effective. A unique feature of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases is the strong laboratory component within an epidemiology department. Areas of excellence include HIV/AIDS, vector biology, parasitology, molecular epidemiology, immunology, and the modeling of infectious diseases.
 

 

  • Track 14-1Chain of disease transmission
  • Track 14-2Global Health Problems and Epidemiology
  • Track 14-3Causes of microbial diseases
  • Track 14-4Recognition of disease
  • Track 14-5Bacterial Diseases
  • Track 14-6Viral Diseases
  • Track 14-7Fungal Diseases and Infections
  • Track 14-8Microbial diseases in plants and animals
  • Track 14-9Epidemiology of Microbial Disease and Infections
  • Track 14-10Biochemical determinants caused by microbes
  • Track 14-11Acute infections, Chronic infections, Latent infections
  • Track 14-12Microbial drug resistance-mechanisms and epidemiology

The ability of specific microorganisms to produce specialized enzymes and proteins has been exploited for many purposes in industry. Industrial microorganisms are used to produce many things, including food, alcoholic beverages, cosmetics, photography, pharmaceuticals and construction materials

Numerous microorganisms are used within industrial microbiology; these include naturally occurring organisms, laboratory selected mutants. Microorganisms can be genetically modified or engineered to aid in large-scale production.

The use of microbes in the various processes of industry- textiles, food and beverage, leather, dairy and the like are a vital part in Industrial Microbiology. These bacteria and other eukaryotic microorganisms play a very crucial and outstanding role as biotechnological "reactors" in many processes- for instance, protein, food and beverage production. The products that are obtained by these processes are of high economic importance and these processes also include fermentation processes and are mostly the intracellular or extra cellular enzymes, microbial biomass and microbial cells or the chemicals produced by microbes.

 
  • Track 15-1Industrial Production of Amino Acids
  • Track 15-2Synthesis of Biopolymers
  • Track 15-3Use of Bio-plastics
  • Track 15-4Medical Applications such as Tissue Engineering and Drug Delivery
  • Track 15-5Drug Bioconversions
  • Track 15-6Biofuel Production
  • Track 15-7Microbial Interactions within different Food Microbial Community
  • Track 15-8Microbes in Mineral and Energy Related Industries
  • Track 15-9Production of biosurfactants

Food processing is the process of making food from the different raw materials through physical and chemical processes. Microorganisms, mainly bacteria have been used to prepare wide range of food products like bread, yogurt or curd, alcoholic beverages, cheese, food processing and preservation, etc. for a long time. The most important bacteria in food manufacturing are Lactobacillus species, also referred to as lactic bacteria. For example- Yeasts are responsible for the fermentation process which produces alcohol in wine. However, lactic bacteria also play an important role, as they convert the unstable malic acid that is naturally present in wine into the stable lactic acid.

In recent years, probiotic cultures have become popular in dairy products because of their health benefits. These cultures are all very carefully selected strains, and there is good evidence that they help improve digestion, safeguard the immune system, and keep the body’s intestinal flora in balance. 

  • Track 16-1Food processing techniques
  • Track 16-2Bio-preservation
  • Track 16-3Role of Lactic Acid Bacteria
  • Track 16-4Role in fermented and functional foods
  • Track 16-5Exploring Phage Ecology, Genetics and Impact in Food Fermentations
  • Track 16-6Role of Functional Fermented Whey Foods in Human Health
  • Track 16-7Significance of Biogeneic Amines in Fermented Foods
  • Track 16-8Role of Microbes and their diversity in Fermented Foods
Microbiology is the study of microorganisms such as bacteria, protozoa, fungi and similar organisms that can't be seen with the naked eye. Medical microbiology is a branch of medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases. With the study of these minute organisms scientists discovered the association of microbes to specific diseases.In addition, this field of science studies various clinical applications of microbes for the improvement of health.
The roles of microbiology on the advances in the healthcare industry, especially in pharmaceutical and medical industry have led to great discoveries, from vaccines to devices. Microbiological testing is a key aspect of cosmetic product safety. The growth of cosmetic industries also paralleled microbiological innovations, which in fact, paved the way to the study of cosmetic microbiology.
  • Track 17-1Production of Vaccines by Beneficial Microorganisms
  • Track 17-2Antimicrobial activity
  • Track 17-3Role of Integrated Omics in Elucidating the Gut Microbiota
  • Track 17-4Immune Modulations of Probiotics
  • Track 17-5Bifid bacterium for Infants
  • Track 17-6Gut Commensal Microbes and Gut Immune System
  • Track 17-7Efficacy of Probiotics in Prevention of Influenza
  • Track 17-8Biochemical Tests
Forest represents highly productive ecosystems that act as carbon sinks where soil organic matter is formed from residuals after biomass decomposition as well as from rhizo-deposited carbon. Forests exhibit a high level of spatial heterogeneity and the importance of trees, the dominant primary producers, for their structure and functioning. Forest Microbiology brings up of healthy forests through the clarification of tree pathogenic fungi and decay fungi, the elucidation of outbreak mechanisms and the control of the development of major tree diseases, as well as the elucidation of symbiotic functions and the utilization of developments in the mycorrhizal fungi. 
 
  • Track 18-1Microorganisms and wood decay
  • Track 18-2Role of microbes in forest soil
  • Track 18-3Forest Ecosystems
  • Track 18-4Impact of biological agents of disease and physical damage
  • Track 18-5Forest Pathology & Mycology
  • Track 18-6Forest Management

Microbes are everywhere in the biosphere, and their presence invariably affects the environment that they are growing in. The effects of microorganisms on their environment can be beneficial or harmful or in apparent with regard to human measure or observation. 

During seed germination and seed plant growth, the developing plant interacts with a variety of microorganisms present within the surrounding soil. As seeds germinate and roots grow through the soil, the release of organic material provides the driving force for the development of active microbial populations in a very zone that has plant root and surrounding soil in a very few millimetre of thickness. This phenomenon is referred as the rhizosphere effect. Soil microbial communities mediate the decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM). The amount of carbon (C) that is respired leaves the soil as CO2 (soil respiration) and causes one of the best fluxes within the global carbon cycle.

The beneficial effects of microbes derive from their metabolic activities in the environment, their associations with plants and animals, and from their use in food production and biotechnological processes. Also microorganisms attach to surfaces and develop biofilms. Biofilm-associated cells can be differentiated from their suspended counterparts by generation of an extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) matrix, reduced growth rates, and also the up- and down- regulation of specific genes. 

  • Track 19-1Environmental Diversity of Microbes
  • Track 19-2Biodeterioration
  • Track 19-3Biodegradation
  • Track 19-4Oxygenic photosynthesis
  • Track 19-5Associations with Animals and Plants
  • Track 19-6Beneficial Effects of Microorganisms
  • Track 19-7Production of Foods and Fuels
  • Track 19-8Environmental recycling
  • Track 19-9Environmental Selection Effect
The distribution and function of microorganisms are of crucial importance for the flow of matter in the Earth's biogeochemical cycles. Effects of microbial communities on the carbon and nitrogen cycles are particularly important for producing climate gases such as CO2, CH4, or N2O. However, the biogeochemical cycles are reversely impacted by global climate change, for example by increasing temperature, increasing CO2 concentration, or changing soil humidity. Microbes are critical players in every geochemical cycle relevant to climate. 
 
The sum total of microbial activity is enormous and the models are used to understand how Earth’s climate works include thousands of different variables from many scientific including atmospherics, oceanography, seismology, geology, physics and chemistry, but few take into consideration the vast effect that microbes have on climate. The American Academy of Microbiology came with a new report, "Incorporating Microbial Processes into Climate Models", offers a plan for integrating the latest understanding of the science of microbiology into climate models. They demonstrate that the microbial processes that affect climate do not necessarily balance each other out.
  • Track 20-1Biogeochemical cycles
  • Track 20-2Microbes as climate engineers
  • Track 20-3Subsurface Biogeochemistry
  • Track 20-4Global warming and phytoplankton
  • Track 20-5Microbes as sentinels of change
Biodegradation is the process in which the decay is carried out by a huge assortment of bacteria, fungi, insects, worms, and other organisms that eat dead material. In nature microbial organisms transform or alter waste products and organic matter into nutrients through metabolic or enzymatic action. Basically biodegradation is nature’s waste management and recycling system where organic (carbon-based) material is changed through chemical processes from complex molecules into simpler molecules, eventually returning the molecules into the environment. For example, a banana peel can be reduced from cellulose to water, carbon dioxide gas, and humus in a compost pile. Biodegradation is a natural process necessary to keep our planet clean and healthy.
 
  • Track 21-1Biotransformation
  • Track 21-2Anaerobic biodegradation
  • Track 21-3Biodegradable technology
  • Track 21-4Biochemistry of biodegradative pathways
  • Track 21-5Applications of biodegradation
Bioremediation is a biological term which means to solve an environmental problem such as contaminated soil or ground water. Biological organisms like bacteria fungi protists and other microorganisms are constantly at work breaking down organic matter, remove or neutralizes contaminants in non-polluted environment. Bacteria and fungi generally work by breaking down contaminants such as petroleum into less harmful substances. Plants can be used to aerate polluted soil and stimulate microbial action. They can also absorb contaminants such as salts and metals into their tissues, which are then harvested and disposed of. Bioremediation provides a good clean-up strategy for cleaning up pollution by enhancing the same biodegradation processes that occur in nature. It also has the advantage of treating the contamination in place so that large quantities of soil, sediment or water do not have to be dug up or pumped out of the ground for treatment.
 
  • Track 22-1Phytoremediation
  • Track 22-2Pollution cleaning techniques
  • Track 22-3Contaminated Soil Disposal
  • Track 22-4Waste water Treatment
  • Track 22-5Treatment of chemicals or waste materials
  • Track 22-6Soil Biofumigant Treatments for Control Pathogens